What is Cardiology? The human body has a unique structure. The cornerstones of this unique structure are movement, digestion, respiratory, excretory and circulatory systems. The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system, distributes the nutrients and oxygen required for the body systems to work in a coordinated way among the systems. Today, cardiovascular system diseases are the most common cause of death in our country and all over the world. In our country, about a quarter of a million people have a heart attack every year and this number will continue to increase in the future. The branch of science that deals with cardiovascular diseases is the branch of cardiology.
What are the diseases related to cardiology? High blood pressure, major limb vascular diseases such as arms and legs, cardiovascular (coronary vessel) diseases, heart valve diseases, heart failure, rhythm disorders, lipid disorders are the main cardiovascular diseases that cardiology deals with.
Which complaints can be applied to the cardiology outpatient clinic? Blood pressure irregularities, shortness of breath, chest pain, arm and leg pain, edema, palpitation, fatigue, dizziness and fainting can be counted as the most common complaints in the application to cardiology outpatient clinics.
What are the examinations performed in the cardiology outpatient clinic? The cardiologist determines the diagnosis and treatment method by performing various tests according to the patient's complaints and examination findings. Among these tests, the most commonly used blood tests, ECG, Echocardiography (ECHO), Exercise test, Lung X-ray, Myocardial Perfusion Scintigraphy, Rhythm and Blood Pressure Holter, event recorder, Cardiac MR imaging, Coronary CT angiography (Virtual angiography) and Coronary angiography can be counted. .ECG: A graph showing the electrical activity of the heart. It is an examination that is obtained with electrodes attached to the body and takes about 5 minutes. Clap is an easy-to-apply rapid diagnostic test, through which we can obtain information about many diseases such as rhythm disorders, cardiovascular stenosis, heart attack and pericardial diseases. Although 24-hour recordings are usually taken, in some cases longer recordings can be taken. It is a valuable test used in the detection of rhythm disorders that may cause complaints such as palpitation, fainting, and stroke. TENSION HOLTER: It is a device for recording your blood pressure values for a long time with a blood pressure cuff attached to your arm. Usually 24-hour recordings are taken. It can be used for diagnostic purposes in patients with suspected high blood pressure, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment in patients with high blood pressure and receiving treatment. Again, called 'white coat hypertension', people with high blood pressure values in the hospital environment can be diagnosed with this test, although they do not normally have high blood pressure. It is the preferred examination in patients who do not have complaints every day and who cannot catch the moment of complaint with the rhythm holter device. ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY (ECO): It is the examination of the heart by ultrasonographic method. Many congenital or acquired structural defects of the heart such as heart valve diseases, contractility problems, pericardial membrane disorders, heart muscle diseases and large vessel problems such as aorta can be detected with this test. This examination, which does not contain radiation and is performed by cardiologists, takes about 10-15 minutes. EXERCISE ECG (Exercise test): It is a test in which the heart is forced by exercise performed according to certain protocols and the heart rhythm is monitored and recorded. With this test, it is tried to diagnose cardiovascular diseases that do not show symptoms at rest by increasing the heart rates determined according to the age of the person. Again, the exercise performance of patients with diseases such as heart valve diseases or lung diseases can be determined with this test. Although it differs between individuals, the test takes about 15 minutes. MYOCARD PERFUSION Scintigraphy: It is a test used in patients who cannot perform an Stress ECG or who have insufficient Stress ECG testing due to orthopedic problems, inability to adapt, some ECG disorders, some heart valve diseases, etc. It can also be performed in some patients with vascular stenosis to evaluate ischemia/vitality in the vascular area or to determine the heart contraction rate. It is made using radioactive material in nuclear medicine centers. It is a test that compares images taken at rest and after exertion or drugs (Pharmacological) heart fatigue. It can provide reliable information about stenosis in the heart vessels. The duration of the test is approximately 3-4 hours. CORONARY CT ANGIOGRAPHY (VIRTUAL ANGIOGRAPHY): It is an examination that takes about 5 minutes in which the heart vessels are visualized by computerized tomography examination. With the test using contrast material, cardiovascular stenosis is detected in a very short time with high accuracy. With this method, strictures cannot be treated, it is only a diagnostic method. CORONARY ANGIOGRAPHY: It is the gold standard method in the determination of cardiovascular stenosis. It is an examination that lasts approximately 30 minutes in which the heart vessels are displayed by entering from the wrist or groin area. It is performed under local anesthesia without any anesthesia in an environment similar to the operating room environment where the angiography device is located. Angiography, which is a diagnostic test, determines the location and degree of stenosis in the vessels. Patients who have stenosis in their vessels with angiography can usually be treated with the Balloon / Stent method in the same session. There are some differences between wrist angiography and inguinal angiography. In the examination performed from the wrist, the patient's comfort is higher, it is not necessary to lie on his back with a weight (sand bag), the patient can stand up earlier, and the risk of complications such as bleeding-bruising is less. Since the inguinal vein is a larger vein, in some cases, operations that cannot be done from the wrist can be done from the groin.